Kulikova Evgeniya Gennad'evna, Candidate of biological sciences, associate professor, sub-department of plant breeding, seed production and biology, Penza State Agrarian University (30, Botanicheskaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Koryagin Yuriy Viktorovich, Candidate of agricultural sciences, associate professor, sub-department of plant breeding, seed production and biology, Penza State Agrarian University (30, Botanicheskaya street, Penza Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Blinokhvatov Anton Aleksandrovich, Candidate of agricultural sciences, head of the sub-department of food production, Penza State Technological University (1A / 11, Baydukova lane / Gagarina street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Koryagina Natal'ya Viktorovna, Candidate of agricultural sciences, associate professor, sub-department of plant breeding, seed production and biology, Penza State Agrarian University (30, Botanicheskaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Blinokhvatova Yuliya Vladimirovna, Candidate of biological sciences, аssociate professor, sub-department of soil science, agrochemistry and chemistry, Penza State Agrarian University (30, Botanicheskaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Background. Under the conditions of increasing anthropogenic impact on nature, technogenic flows of various pollutants increase, their pressure on all components of the biosphere increases, which serves as an environmentally dangerous factor of a chemical nature. The problem of urban pollution is currently extremely relevant. The purpose of the research was to study the impact of the company PJSC “Penzmash” on the state of the soil cover of adjacent territories. The objectives of the research were to study the annual volume of formation of polluting substances at the enterprise; to determine the main chemical indicators of soils and the content of heavy metals within a radius of 100 m from the object and compare them with samples from the forest Park zone of Penza.
Materialis and methods. The research was carried out on the territory adjacent to PJSC “Penzmash”. The sampling points were the following sections: the bank of the Sura river, a playground, and the territory of PJSC “Penzmash”. To compare the data obtained, we used samples taken on the territory of the forest area in the forest Park zone of Penza. The selection of images was carried out with a reed soil drill from the horizon of 0–10 cm. Laboratory studies of soil samples were carried out in the Federal state budgetary institution “Penza-ski” according to accredited methods: GOST 26927, GOST 26930, GOST 26932, GOST 26933, GOST 30178, GOST 30538, GOST R 51301, GOST R 51766, GOST R 51962.
Results. The enterprise annually plans to increase the amount of air emissions from 69,01 in 2017 to 72,66 t/year in 2020 within the maximum permissible emission – 74,80521 t/year. In the annual waste generation standard of the enterprise by 90,3 %, in the limit for waste disposal – 85,2 % is dominated by hazard class V waste. The standards for the discharge of pollutants into the environment as part of wastewater and (or) drainage water not exceeding the permissible concentration at the outlet are 26,07694 t/year. An analysis of the main chemical indicators of the soils of the examined adjacent territories showed that all of them have a neutral or close to neutral reaction of the environment. Analysis of the content of heavy metals in soils showed significant contamination of the enterprise: lead content (hazard class I) exceeds the estimated permissible concentration by 13,0 mg/kg, nickel (hazard class II) by 5,3 mg/kg, zinc (hazard class III) – on 24,6 mg/kg of soil. The content of heavy metals in the territories adjacent to the enterprise was 1,1–2,57 times higher than in the forest park zone, but within the approximate permissible concentration.
Conclusions. Monitoring of emissions of PJSC “Penzmash” of harmful (polluting) substances into the air and into waste and (or) drainage water will reduce their concentration to approximate acceptable values. Regular replacement of treatment filters, traps of harmful (polluting) substances will help to reduce the technogenic load of the enterprise on the soil cover of the territories adjacent to the facility.
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